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Glossary

This glossary was designed to help our visitors understand the terminolgy used in the fields of Chiropractic and Clinical Nutrition.

  • Nutritional Terms
  • Chiropractic Terms

Amino Acids
Nitrogen-bearing organic acids that are the building blocks of protein. The branched chain amino acids are Leucine, Valine and Isoleucine.

Anabolic
Metabolic condition in which new molecules are synthesized (growth).

Antioxidants
Any substances that prevent or impede cell oxidation (destruction) by free radicals, etc.

Ascorbic Acid
Also known as Vitamin C. A water soluble vitamin, and an antioxidant. Your body cannot store Vitamin C, so you must supplement it regularly. It is not resistant to heat, so cooking will destroy it. Vitamin C functions primarily in the formation of collagen, the chief protein substance of your body's framework. It also helps in the production of vital body chemicals. Vitamin C also is a detoxifier (helping cleanse your body of toxins).

B-Complex Vitamins
A group of eleven known vitamins that work together in your body. All play vital roles in the conversion of food into energy. Essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the maintenance of good digestion. Helps promote healthy skin, hair, and eyes. These are water soluble vitamins, which mean they cannot be stored by your body and must be replaced every day.

B-2 (Riboflavin)
A vitamin which helps with energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy form protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

B-3 (Niacin)
A vitamin important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts.

B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)
A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

B-6 (Pyridoxine)
A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

B-12 (Cobalamin)
Necessary for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Important to amino acid and fatty acid synthesis; essential for hemoglobin and nerve cell growth and maintenance. The anti-stress vitamin, sometimes prescribed for stress reduction.

BCAA's (Branch Chain Amino Acids)
Leucine, Valine, and Isoleucine are called "branch chain" amino due to their molecular structure, and are important essential amino acids well known for their anticatabolic (muscle-saving) benefits. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chin of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's positively affect skeletal muscle growth, enhance fat loss, help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of positive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more body fat than those not taking BCAA's.

BCAA's are used as a source of energy of muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCCA's are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

Beta-Carotene
A phytonutrient carotenoid with antioxidant and pro vitamin a activity. In addition to providing the body with a safe source of Vitamin A, beta carotene works with other natural protectors to defend your cells from harmful free radical damage.

Biotin
A vitamin that helps with energy metabolism, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis.

Bovine Cartilage
A source of mucopolysaccharides which have anti-inflammatory and joint protective properties.

Calcium
Most abundant mineral in the body; essential for the formation and repair of bone and teeth, but also essential to nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood clotting and other metabolic activities as well. Long term calcium deficiency is linked to degenerative bone diseases.

Carbohydrate
There are two basic forms of carbohydrates: Simple & Complex. Simple carbs are usually devoid of fiber and include such foods as refined sugars, fruit juices, and apple juice, and apple sauce. The problem with simple carbs is that they promote a large insulin surge, which can lead to hypoglycemia. Complex carbs are absorbed more slowly, so they don't cause as great and insulin surge as the simple type. Primary macronutrient source of energy in the body; burned as glucose and stored and stored in muscle as glycogen (excess stored as fat) and includes all sugars (1 gram yields 4 calories).

Carnitine (L-Carnitine)
Non-structural amino acid that transports fatty acids into muscle cells for use as energy fuel.

Cholesterol
A fat-like sterol used by the body for production of hormones (including testosterone), vitamin D and cell membranes; high levels in the blood stream are a marker for heart disease.

Choline
One of the elements that is found in lecithin. Considered important in the transmission of nerve impulses. Choline is involved in the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline has been linked to reducing body fat and improving exercise performance.

Chromium/Chromium Picolinate
Chromium increases the efficiency of the hormone insulin, which the pancreas releases after you eat carbohydrates or protein. Chromium acts to make the receptor of muscle cells more sensitive to insulin (which allows you to store more carbohydrates in the muscle cells as glycogen rather than in fat cells as lipids). Insulin also helps muscles use amino acids for building protein rather than breaking them down. Chromium can promote modest muscular gins and decreases in body fat (thus helps build lean mass). Exercise increases the excretion rate of chromium.

 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
CLA occurs naturally in whole milk and red meat. A collective term used to designate a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of the essential fat linoleic acid. It is actually a fat, derived for linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid). Studies have shown that CLA can increase lean body mass and decrease fat, inhibit the growth of tumors and enhance immune function. CLA is found naturally in beef, cheese and whole milk.

Cortisol
A catabolic hormone that is released and increases in response to stress when the body is subjected to trauma such as intense exercise, including weight training. Excess cortisol is known to increase catabolism (protein breakdown in muscles). Cortisol leads to muscle breakdown through promoting a release of muscle amino acids for transport to the liver, where the amino acids are converted into glucose.

C-Q10
Antioxidant shown to have heart protective and energy production properties.

Creatine (monohydrate)
A muscle fuel that is extracted naturally from meat and fish, or synthesized in the lab. Once it is in the muscles, creatine combines with phosphorous to make Creatine Phosphate (CP), a high powered chemical that rebuilds the muscles ultimate energy source, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). CP powers your muscles for high intensity exercise for short periods only; consequently, athletes who compete in power and sprint event will have an advantage if they take supplemental creatine. More CP in the muscle cell translates into a greater resistance to fatigue. Also, CP helps with the transfer of energy in the muscle cells, thus speeding up the action, which may enhance performances that are intense activity faster and experience less post exercise muscle soreness.

Creatine is a naturally occurring compound in the muscle tissue and when converted in the muscle tissue to phosphocreatine during exercise can provide sudden bursts of energy. Insufficient amounts of phosphocreatine could result in the muscle. The Creatine Monohydrate Powder provides enough energy to delay to onset of fatigue. Creatine Monohydrate is a synthesized metabolite that is the powerful energizer providing instant energy and strength with better endurance and help to maintain optimal levels of ATP production during intense exercise.

Why Monohydrate? Creatine comes in several forms. Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Phosphate, and liquid form. Creatine Phosphate is much more expensive to manufacture while it offers no advantage. Liquid creatine has many problems associated with it. When mixing creatine monohydrate with a protein drink, or water, the creatine starts to become unstable. Within 24 hours, the creatine begins to change or "fallout" into creatinine. Creatinine is a useless substance to the body. Thus, buying a premixed liquid form of creatine is not a legitimate product. The best absorbed form of creatine is the creatine monohydrate. Creatine monohydrate is better absorbed because it is more stable, resulting in higher concentration of available creatine.

Creatine & ATP. ATP is the molecule that releases the energy for contraction of muscles, the breakdown and synthesis of proteins and all other reactions requiring energy. In short, ATP is the energy molecule powering all of our movements. By giving off its energy through its high energy phosphate bond, ATP is reduced to ADP. The problem is that the amount of ATP that is stored in our cells is limited. Depending on the intensity of the activity, ATP supplies can be used up by converting to ADP within seconds. So how do athletes run or workout for long periods. We can do that because there are three way to replenish ATP.

You can restore ATP using energy derived from the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates. This is a slow process that occurs in the mitochondria. 2) You can restore ATP through lactic acid, which is utilized to produce energy, which turns ADP back into ATP. 3) Through Creatine Monohydrate, which helps creatine phosphate create more ATP for ADP within seconds? It is a short term, high energy backup for ATP. It does not need carbohydrates, fats or oxygen to recharge ATP.

DHEA ( Dehydroepiandrosterone)
A hormone made by the adrenal glands used by the body to make male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones; possible positive effects on mood and energy on older individuals (40+) whose production of DHEA has declined. As been referred to as the "Fountain of Youth" hormone because it declined rapidly as we age, and supplementation with this hormone reverses many of the ravages associated with aging. Studies show that men with the highest DHEA levels have better cardiovascular health.

Egg protein
Source of protein with high Protein Efficiency Ratio, usually in egg white form (albumin) when used in protein powder to avoid cholesterol in egg yolk. Egg protein is the standard by which all other proteins are measured because of its very high ration of indispensable amino acids (also called essential amino acids because they must be supplied to the body from food or supplements) to dispensable amino acids.

Echinacea
Herb with immune protective properties, shown to have some benefit protecting against colds and flu.

Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)
They include Linoleic Acid, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Monounsaturated fats. These are considered the "good fats". They cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by our diet. You need approximately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

Fats
Macronutrient that is a source for long term energy and energy storage (as adipose tissue); necessary for absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins and constituent of hormones and cell membranes (1gram = 9 calories).

Fiber
The more insoluble the fiber is (fiber that does not dissolve in water, the better it is for you. Insoluble fiber reduces the risk of colon cancer and high blood pressure. Fruit fiber seems to be more beneficial then vegetable or cereal fibers, probably because fruits are loaded with Pectin, an insoluble fiber. As a rule, the higher the insolubility, the fewer the calories. Corn bran is the best, followed by wheat bran, and then oat bran. It is best to eat fiber after you work out to avoid intestinal discomfort.

Free Radicals
Free radicals are highly reactive molecules in the body which can destroy tissues by oxidizing cell membrane lipids and damaging DNA, the body's genetic material. Free radicals are produced through the body's normal process of metabolizing the air we breath and the food we eat, as well as exposure to tobacco smoke, excess sunlight and environmental pollutants. Antioxidants work in the body by neutralizing free radicals before they can do significant harm.

Ginkgo Biloba
An herb shown to enhance mental acuity. Some research has shown that Ginkgo Biloba increases cerebral blood flow to the brain. Also, boost brain levels of adenosine triphosphate and scavenge free radicals. Combined with ginger, gingko has also been shown too reduce stress induced anxiety.

Ginseng
A family of herbs with adaptogenic properties affecting energy. There are different ginsengs (Asian, American, and Siberian). Some ginsengs have shown to have mental enhancing effects. Studies show that and individual ginseng component called ginsenoside RB acts favorably in reversing memory deficits by increasing he secretion of acetylcholine. Studies also suggest that ginseng extract improved learning and retention processes.

Glucosamine
Organic compound found in cartilage and joint fluid; relieves joint pain and may help in healing some joint injuries.

Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF)
GTF is thought to be a complex of chromium, nicotinic acid, and the amino acids glycine, cystein and glutamic acid (these aminos are components of glutathione). GTF is thought to be synthesizing by the liver. In many people, chromium is likely the deficient substrate for GTF formation. GTF is found in foods such as organ meats, whole gains, cheese, mushrooms and brewer's yeast.

Glutamine
An amino acid. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue. Studies are beginning to show that having extra glutamine in your body may be important to maximize muscle growth, by increasing growth hormone levels. Glutamine also is important to maintain proper health, and is shown to have anabolic and anticatabolic properties. During intense training, the signal for muscle breakdown (which is a bad thing) may be the release of skeletal muscle glutamine. That means that each time you train, your muscles release glutamine which in part triggers a catabolic state (a catabolic state is synonymous with muscle breakdown). By providing Glutamine, documented clinical studies have shown that Glutamine will have a significant impact on maintaining a positive nitrogen balance which is essential to muscular development and recovery.

Glycogen
It is a term for many units of glucose strung together. The body stores glycogen in two areas, the liver and the muscles. Only about 5 grams or 20 calories worth of glucose flows in the blood. Liver stores about 75 to 100 grams, or 300 to 400 calories; an hour of aerobics can burn up half the liver glycogen content. The muscles store around 360 grams, or 1,440 calories. Carbohydrate loading is one technique used to increase muscle glycogen content. By not consuming enough carbohydrates, you deplete both liver and muscle glycogen reserves. While complex carbs are considered to be more desirable than simple carbs, simple carbs are more efficient after a workout for replacing muscle glycogen. Simple carbs are absorbed faster, and promote a greater insulin output. A carbohydrate drink with at least 50grams of carb will do the trick.

Grape Seed Extract
Source of proanthocyanadins, an important antioxidant.

Green Tea
Popular in Asia , green tea contains caffeine. Perhaps more notable, recent research has shown that green tea reduces the risk of developing stomach cancer by 50% and esophageal cancer by 6-%. No one knows for sure, but scientists think that polyphenois in green tea protect health by combating free radicals.

Growth Hormone
Known in the medical community as somatotropin. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a petite hormone, which is composed of many amino acids (191 of them linked together. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approximately 17 to 45 minutes. Because of this, detecting GH in a drug screen is very hard.

Hypoglycemia
A term meaning low blood sugar. It's a set of symptoms that point to irregularities in the way the body handles glucose, the sugar that circulates in the blood. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, trembling, anxiety, fast heartbeat, headache, hunger, weakness, mental confusion, and on occasion, seizures and coma. However, it occurs rarely because the body has a lot of backup systems preventing it.

Inositol
An active factor in the B-Complex vitamins which help convert food to energy. With Choline, Inositol is active in the metabolism of fats.

Iron
Mineral essential to oxygen transport in blood (via hemoglobin and myoglobin), enzyme production and immune support. A deficiency can cause the most common form of anemia. Teenagers need additional iron during their years of maximum growth; women need extra iron during the years they are menstruating and during pregnancy.

Isoleucine
One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of positive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burn fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more body fat than those not taking BCAA's.

Kombucha
A tea made from a fungus/ yeast fermentation with high nutrient level used by people for immune protection, increase energy, and other positive effects. Sometimes called a Kombucha mushroom. It is two life forms, a yeast culture and bacteria living in symbiosis, from Manchuria .

Lactose
Sugar in milk which many people, especially adults, have and intolerance to (indigestion) to a lack of the enzyme lactasein their bodies.

Lecithin
Dry powder source of phospholipids high in B-Fatty acids.

Leucine
One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of positive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burn fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more body fat than those not taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more body fat than those not taking BCAA's.

Leucine appears to be the most important BCAA for athletes, as it can affect various anabolic hormones, and have an effect on preventing protein degradation. HMB is a metabolite of Leucine. Some experts have suggested that if you do not have Leucine in your body, you will not have muscle growth.

Linoleic Acid
An essential fatty acid (EFA) that your body cannot make itself. It is found in polyunsaturated oils such as safflower, sunflower, walnut oil, etc. This is considered a type of "good" fat. You need approximately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

Lutein
A carotenoid phytonutrient with antioxidant properties especially important to eye protection.

Lycopene
Most powerful of the carotenoid antioxidants; shown to be beneficial in prostate protection and treatment.

Manganese
Needed for normal tendon and bone structure.

Magnesium
Mineral necessary for energy metabolism, protein and fat synthesis, neuromuscular transmission, ammonia scavenging and binding of calcium to teeth, etc. aids in bone growth, and is necessary for proper functioning of nerves and muscles.

Melatonin
Hormone produced by the pineal gland that regulates circadian rhythms; helps induce sleep and acts as an antioxidant.

Mineral
Inorganic substances necessary for good health as an ingredient or a catalyst.

Mineral (Chelated)
A chelated mineral is generally attached to a protein transporter molecule with the intent of improved transport across the gut to the blood stream. Although some of the minerals are well absorbed in this manner it does not necessarily always indicative of the best form for absorption.

Monounsaturated Fats
An essential fatty acid (EFA) that seems to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is considered a type of "good" fat. Olive oil and canola oil have this in them. You need approximately 2 % of your daily calories as EFA's.

Niacin (Vitamin B-3)
A vitamin important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
An essential fatty acid (EFA) that seems to risk of cardiovascular disease. This is considered a type of "good" fat. Sources include fish, salmon, mackerel, and sardines. You need approximately 2 % of your daily calories as EFA's.

Ornithine
A non-essential, non-structural amino acid made from Argentine shown to influence growth hormone release: most anabolic when combined with alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG)?

Paba ( Para Amino benzoic Acid)
Important for the formation of red blood cells. Aids in the conversion of protein into energy. Necessary for healthy skin, and hair pigmentation.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5)
A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of healthy digestive system.

Pectin
A soluble fiber found in the skins of fruits (apples and peaches) and vegetables. One study found that eating Pectin will make you feel full longer. Researchers speculate that Pectin may slow digestion and keep food in your stomach longer.

Phenylalanine
An amino acid, one of the main ingredients to enhance brain function. It has also been used to relieve stress.

Phosphorus
Mineral that is structural component of all cells (including muscle); necessary for energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and growth / maintenance of all tissues.

Potassium
Mineral that helps maintain cellular integrity and water balance, nerve transmission and energy metabolism; necessary for muscle contraction. Potassium helps to lower blood pressure, lower risk of stroke, maintain muscle balance and prevent muscle cramping. Potassium helps to reduce the amount of sodium in the body.

Protein
Primary macronutrient for growth and maintenance of our body's structural parts (including muscle). Cannot be stored, so must be replenished through diet. (1 gram=4 calories).

Protein ( Egg)
Source of protein with high Protein Efficiency Ratio, usually in egg white form (albumin) when used in protein powder to avoid cholesterol in egg yolk. Egg protein is the standard by which all other proteins are measured because of its very high ration of indispensable amino acids (also called essential amino acids because they must be supplied to the body from food or supplements) to dispensable amino acids.

Protein (Whey)
Dairy source of protein (other than casein), known for high levels of BCAA's and high nitrogen retention. Made from milk curd, whey protein is the Rolls Royce of proteins because it has a superior amino acid composition (including high levels of leucine, arguably the most important branched chain amino acid), superior biological value (meaning that more of what you eat gets digested and into your system), is very low in lactose (a milk sugar that most adults have difficulty digesting).

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6)
A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cell (hemoglobin) essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

Pyruvate
A key energy metabolite for the breakdown of fuel (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) to energy in our bodies, pyruvate can give us increased energy, assist in burning fat as fuel, and have anticatabolic effects (such as producing alanine). Pyruvate acid is alpha-ketopropionic acid. Studies have shown that pyruvate can help decrease fatigue, and increase vigor with only six grams per day.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)
A vitamin which helps with helps with energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

Saw Palmetto
Herb shown to have protective properties for the liver.

Selenium
Trace mineral with potent antioxidant effects; component in sulfur bearing amino acid production and fetal development during pregnancy; recent clinical evidence of cancer preventive properties.

Sodium
Also known as Salt. Regulates body fluid volume, transports amino acids to cells and plays a role in muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Sodium is an important mineral found in our bones, in the fluids surrounding our cells and in the cardiovascular system. Sodium, with potassium, assists nerve stimulation and regulated water balance. It is also involved in carbohydrate absorption.

The average person requires a minimum of one tenth of a teaspoon of salt a day. Any athlete who sweats needs more. A teaspoon a day of salt does not cause problems, nor does eating fresh foods high in natural slat such as fish, carrots, beets and poultry. Eating processed and junk foods, can lead to high, potentially dangerous levels of sodium intake.

Soy Protein
Primary vegetable source of protein found in protein powders; lower in nitrogen retention and BCAA's than whey and egg, but higher in argentine and glutamine and contains isoflavones with antioxidant properties.

St. John's Wort
Scientific name: Hypericum Performatum. A plant herb that is used to relieve mild depressive symptoms, sleep disorder, and anxiety, although probably not effective against serious depression. In large doses, it may be unsafe as it can make the skin and eyes extra sensitive to light.

Steroids
Steroids are synthetic derivatives of the hormone testosterone that allow the user to gain muscle mass and strength rapidly. In addition to their muscle building effects, anabolic steroids increase the oxidation rate of fat, thus giving the user a more ripped appearance.

Stevia
An herb from Brazil and Paraguay that is good replacement for sugar and artificial sweeteners. You can also bake with it.

Stevioside
An artificial sweetener. Extracted from the herb Stevia. It is 300 times sweeter than sugar, but has strong aftertaste.

Thiamin (Vitamin B-1)
A vitamin which maintains energy levels supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.

Tryptophan
An essential amino acid, known for its calming and mood enhancing effects. It is a naturally occurring ingredient in turkey that mellows you out and makes you want to take a nap after the Thanksgiving feast. Tryptophan can also be called 5-HTP (5-hydortryptophan) which is made with a slightly different compound that regular tryptophan.

Tyrosine
A conditionally essential amino acid, tyrosine can elevate mood and is a precursor of the brain neurotransmitters dopamine, nor epinephrine and epinephrine.

Valine
One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of positive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more body fat than those not taking BCAA's.

Vanadyl Sulfate
Source of mineral vanadium; helps optimize glycogen storage to yield more energy. Vanadyl is supposed to help you attain a little more muscle and inhibit fat storage by controlling insulin release. In theory, Vanadyl works inside the muscle cells by bringing carbohydrates into the muscle without the assistance of insulin. If there is less insulin, there is less chance of carbohydrates being converted to stored body fat.

Vitamins
Complex organic molecules essential for biochemical transformations necessary for proper metabolism and disease protection. Some popular vitamins are:

•  A: (Retinol)
A vitamin with antioxidant properties, important for eye protection and bone growth; protein and hormone synthesis (including GH and testosterone); supports tissue maintenance. Helps reduce susceptibility to infection. Essential for healthy skin, good blood, strong bones and teeth, kidneys, bladder, lungs and membranes.

•  B-Complex Vitamins
A group of eleven known vitamins that work together in your body. All play vital roles in the conversion of food into energy. Essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the maintenance of good digestion. Helps promote healthy skin, hair, and eyes. These are a water soluble vitamin, which means they cannot be stored by your body and must be replaced every day.

•  B-1 (Thiamin)
Maintains energy levels, supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.

•  B-2 (Riboflavin)
Energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

•  B-3 (Niacin)
Important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amount of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

•  B-5 ( Pantothenic Acid)
Supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

•  B-6 (Pyridoxine)
Supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

•  B-12 (Cobalamin)
Necessary for carbohydrate, protein and fate metabolism. Important to amino acid and fatty acid synthesis; essential for hemoglobin and nerve cell growth and maintenance. The anti-stress vitamin, sometimes prescribed for stress reduction.

•  Biotin
Energy metabolism, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis.

•  C (Ascorbic Acid)
Antioxidant, synthesis of hormones, amino acids and collagen (connective tissue); excretion of excess cholesterol. Necessary to produce collagen, the connective material of all body tissues. Important for the health of the teeth and the gums. Strengthens capillaries and other blood vessels. Plays an important role in healing injuries. Aids in the body's absorption of iron. Vitamin C is water soluble, which means it cannot be stored by your body and must be frequently replaced.

•  D (Calciferol)
Supports calcium absorption and deposition into bones. Must be present for your body to use calcium and phosphorus. Essential for growing children to insure that teeth and bones develop properly.

•  E ( D-Alpha-Tocopherol)
Antioxidant, especially protective of polyunsaturated fats and body tissues. Acts as a preservative, preventing many substances, such as Vitamin A, from destructive breakdown by oxidation in the body. Prolongs the life of red blood cells. Necessary for the proper use of oxygen by the muscles.

•  Folic Acid
Necessary for the production of red blood cells. Essential for normal metabolism. A deficiency may cause a form of anemia. Drinking alcohol and taking oral contraceptives can cause lower levels of this vitamin in your body. Especially important during pregnancy to prevent birth defects.

•  K
Supports blood clotting, bone mineralization.

Whey Protein
Dairy source of protein (other than casein), known for high levels of BCCA's and high nitrogen retention. Made form milk curd, whey protein is the Rolls Royce of proteins because it has a superior amino acid composition (including high levels of leucine, arguably the most important branched chain amino acid), superior biological value (meaning that more of what you eat gets digested and into your system), is very low in lactose (a milk sugar that most adults have difficulty digesting).

Zinc
Mineral important as a cofactor in energy metabolism, amino acid and protein synthesis; Antioxidant effects to protect the immune system. Essential for growth, tissue repair, and sexual development. Plays an important role in healing. Since animal proteins are the best sources, vegetarians are often deficient in zinc.

ADD/ADHD
(Attention-Deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a very controversial and highly emotional health condition. There are basically two caps for theories on this condition. One theory proposes a drug approach for treatment, and the other proposes a natural alternative (nutritional and behavioral). There are many side effects to the current medications recommended for this condition such as stunting the child's growth, and predisposing them to statistically higher potential for drug abuse, to name a few. Studies show that alternative treatments (nutritional, behavioral and chiropractic) may be effective in treating ADD/ADHD.

Carpal Tunnel
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) occurs when a nerve that goes into your hand is compressed at the wrist. Think of CTS being a "pinched nerve" in the wrist caused by swelling, a thickening of the tendons responsible for moving your fingers, or from trauma to the wrist. CTS typically begins as tingling in the hand (waking the patient at night), and can progress to muscle weakness, and finally atrophy of muscles in the effected hand. Your doctor can properly assess your condition to decide if chiropractic care is appropriate for you.

Cervical
Pertaining to the neck.

Chiropractic
A system of diagnosis and healing based on the concept that health and diseases are related to nervous system function, disease is due to malfunction of the nervous system due to noxious irritants, and health can be restored by removal.

Coccyx
The last bone of the spinal column. Located just below the sacrum. Also know as the tailbone.

Cranium
The bones of the skull.

Degenerative Disc Disease
Narrowing of disc space between the vertebrae.

Disc
Cushions between the vertebrae.

Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia (Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic and sometimes debilitating condition characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, nonrejuvenating sleep, fatigue, and intermittent muscle stiffness. The American College of Rheumatology established criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia to include wide-spread pain for at least three months, and 11 of 18 active tender points. FM may be an inherited illness or due to physical trauma such as an accident, although many patients report a history of psychological problems, such as depression or anxiety. Although there is no "cure" as of yet, exercise, stretching, soft tissue massage, nutritional supplementation, and chiropractic adjustments help to minimize FM symptoms and increase overall health and well being.

Lumbar
Referring to the 5 lumbar vertebrae which are situated below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae in the spinal column.

Myofascial Pain
Myofacial Pain (MFP) or trigger points (TPs) are areas within muscles that contain "microspasms" that when pressed on can cause referred pain. TPs can be caused by injury, stress, poor posture and poor nutrition. TPs in the neck and shoulders are a common source of headaches. Treatment for MFP consists of nutritional supplements, soft tissue therapy, chiropractic adjusting, and specific stretches and exercises.

Sacrum
The triangular-shaped bone laying between the 5 th lumbar vertebrae an (tailbone).

Sciatica
A syndrome characterized by pain radiating from the back in the buttock and the lower extremity and most commonly caused by prolapsed of the intevert into disc. The term is also used to refer to pain anywhere along the course nerve.

Scoliosis
Scoliosis is a sideways curving of the spine and can usually be detected by comparing shoulder and hip heights. The first sign of the condition is often uneven pant leg lengths. Once scoliosis is detected and graded, frequent check-ups for progression are important for administering proper care. The effects of scoliosis may be minimized with proper spinal adjustments (which improve overall spine movement and flexibility), and specific stretches and exercises. If you or your child is showing signs of scoliosis, see your Doctor of Chiropractic for a scoliosis evaluation.

Short Leg Syndrome
Short leg syndrome (SLS), as the name implies, is a condition where an individual has one leg shorter than the other. Although there are many causes for SLS, the effect on the body is the same. It results in an unbalanced pelvis which can cause curvatures in the spine. There are several causes for SLS including leg fractures and foot pathologies (such as fallen arches and chronic ankle sprains). If your SLS is due to foot pathology, a full length orthotic that corrects your heel and arch may be the best solution. Ask your doctor to evaluate the status of your leg length.

Spinal Column
The series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx provides support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.

Tennis Elbow
The classic tennis elbow is caused by repeated forceful contractions of wrist muscles located on the outer forearm. The stress, created at a common muscle origin, causes microscopic tears leading to inflammation. Medial tennis elbow, or medial epicondylitis, is caused by forceful, repetitive contractions from muscles located on the inside of the forearm.

T.M.J.
The temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) is a joint much like the ankle, and responds to injuries with inflammation causing the joint to swell, stretching pain sensitive nerves within the joint capsule (envelope around the joint). On occasion, pain sensitive structures stabilizing the joint are caught between the bones of the TMJ leading to swelling. This may cause a protective spasm of the masseter muscle (a powerful muscle responsible for closing the jaw) which can be a significant source of jaw pain. Proper treatment for TMJ dysfunctions such as locking; popping, clicking or cracking may require cooperative care between your chiropractor and your dentist.

Vertebrae
The 23 bones that compose the spinal column.

Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis affects 9 million Americans, and is a major health care problem in the world today. Osteoporosis is defined in general as a reduction in an individuals' bone mineral content (BMC). Osteoporosis weakens the bone structure and leaves the patient susceptible to fractures. Your BMC can be measured by an instrument called a bone densitometer.